Adverse Childhood Experiences, or ACEs, are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood before turning 18 years old. It can be the experience of violence, abuse, or neglect; witnessing violence in the home or community; or having a family member attempt or die by suicide. ACE shares a similar definition with another term many of us might be more familiar with - childhood trauma. The child’s environment that undermines their sense of safety, stability, and bonding is also one of the risk factors of ACEs. It can also be growing up in a household with problems of substance use or mental health; or experiencing instability due to parental separation or household members being in prison. ACEs can also have huge and long-term impacts on future violence victimization and perpetration as the child grows into his or her adulthood. The two experts who help us understand more about childhood trauma in this episode are Asst. Prof. Dr. Nattasuda Taephant, dean of Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University and Dr. Phot Dhammapeera, a lecturer at the same faculty, whose expertise is cognitive neuropsychology.